Monday, February 25, 2013

How to Decrease Medical Costs

1. Decrease the number of people involved in delivering the service. Government, Insurance, For-profit Hospital board of investors all take their cut. Make hospitals non-profit, have them be county- owned and give them low/no-interest loans.

2. have doctor's focus their practice on caring for the sick and not "well checks". Let nurses or mid-level providers do well-checks when needed. "The whole hath no need of a physician but them that are sick".

3. If we stay with insurance, why do we shift insurance from private to government once a person retires. If a person has been covered and paid into insurance their whole life, then why shift liability to the tax payer after age 65?

4 . When a doctor changes 1$ the government amd insurance pays only 40 cents. Consequently, doctors charge more to get their 1$. Government then uses the artificial inflation of medical costs, due to their decreased reembursement, for political leverage.

5. Realize that mommies and daddies teach and practice preventative medicine and not doctors. If a doctor is telling you to exercize, eat right and loss weight; it's probably too late for most people.

6. Our current system makes it too easy for pain-pill and xanax-pill addicts to clog up the system. They take up way too much space for their chronic problems. These people may need their meds but they don't need to be taking up a doctor's time.

7. CLIA regulation and pharma have made many tests very complicated and impossible to perform in the clinic setting. Tests like a CBC, CMP, UA need to be simpler, cheaper and easy to do without needing a lab technician. Really, we should not be setting up a system were we need lab techs, resp techs, rad techs, etc. Technology should br symplified enough that doctors offices can perform them without needing a separate training degree. Blood tests could all be done on one micro-well chip. A scan could be just involve laying on a table and selecting what part of the body to image.

8. We all know that end-of-life care is where all the money gets spent. We don 't need death panels. But at some point, we can't keep prolonging the agony when our loved one has end-stage dementia, is in a nursing home. At some point it is probably a mistake to place a feeding tube, or start dialysis, or place them on a vent. But people do because they are spending her retirement or SS check and they need to keep her around for as long as possible.

If something is wrong, there is nothing wrong visiting the ED in the middle of the night. ED doctors make ourselves availible 24/7-365. But I think programs like Hospice and Palliative Treatment can be expanded. It doesnt mean we dont give fluids, antibiotics, nutrician or pain medicines: but we may not do other invasive and expensive things. Hopefully, if tests are simpler to do; nursing homes can diagnose amd treat their own UTI and not have to cause a hospital admission.

9. Why is there an age of retirement. Retirement isn't a biblical value. Are we not to "eat our bread by the sweat of our face all the days of our life?". I thinks its good to work less. Change the nature of work and take more time off. However, instead of retirement, we should just have disability insurace. We stop working when we become too disabled to work.

Saturday, February 23, 2013

Possible Moray Device Explanation

Photobucket Pictures, Images and Photos

If you don't know about T. Henry Moray, he was a faithful LDS member, served a mission in Sweden and worked as a scientist and inventor. He died in 1974. During his lifetime, he developed a so-called "free-radiant-energy" device that could generate up to 50 kilowatts of power.

I have never witnessed any other free-energy device produce as much heat as the Moray did. Heat is the "good fruit" by which all energy devices must be judged. The Moray device was demonstrated many times to energize banks of incandescent bulbs as well as heat up 400-Watt flat irons all at the same time. He did have a problem with running powertools because the motors were built to run on 120 Volts/60-Hz AC. The power coming from the Moray Device was also AC but ran at a much higher frequency. He often reported a purple cold-plasma ionization around the windings of the motor of a power tool.

Dr. Moray could never explain exactly how the device worked and consequently was never able to secure a patent. He had many threats against his life and after refusing to turn his technology over to the Communists, his lab assistant destroyed the device with a hammer. Because of war and inflation he never again could afford to build any of the key components. Dr. Moray went to his grave believing that he was the victim of a terrible Communist plot. Consequently, like Tesla, Dr Moray went to his grave with the secrets to his device not wanting them to fall into the hands of the Communists who seemed to take a much bigger intetest in his research than the US did.

Dr. Moray contacted Dr Harvey Fletcher at Bell Laboratories and told him about many key aspects of his Moray Valve and Moray device. It should be no surprise that a few years later Bell Laboratories came out with the transistor.

1. I believe the Moray Device worked
2. I do not believe it worked on the principles ofvfree, radiant, or zero-point energy
3. I believe the Moray Valve was instead a very efficent beta-voltaic cell.
4. I believe Moray's assistant was a fabian globalist spy who destroyed the device after the globalist were able to replicate it.
5. Dr. Moray was fooled into thinking the whole episode was a communist plot.

The Moray device seems to be divided into 3 sections:

1. HF Antenna Long Wire, Tunned LC Circuit, and Ground (simple radio receiver)
2. Moray Valve(s) (beta-voltaic cell)
3. Tubes and Transformer Coils which converted and transformed DC voltage from the Moray Valve into High Frequency AC at 120 Volts
(Like a tube version of a Joule thief/ringer circuit)

Dr. Moray thought the Moray Valve was working like a crystal radio and receiving and amplifying cosmic rays which he called radiant energy. This is because he thought the device required an antenna that the antenna was receiving the source of the energy.

I think the Moray device was not "receiving" free-energy, but I think that the applied HF signal across the semiconductor was tuned until the applied radio electric signal was in phononic resonance with the gallium-doped germanium p-type semiconductor in the Moray Valve according to the "Speed of quantum transition?" or "Electron-phononic coupling" of 1.094 MHz.m.

This is the heart of the device. Dozens of Moray Valves were placed in series to generate higher power outputs.

Photobucket Pictures, Images and Photos

The key to the Moray Valve was:
1. It was a cold vacuum tube. (there was no heater, no grid, no electron beam)
2. It contained an energetic radioactive alpha-emitter like Polonium (Radium F)
3. it contained a gallium-doped germanium crystal which acted like a p-type (excess holes) semiconductor (electron acceptor)
4. it contained a heavy metal bismuth surrounding the semiconducting crystal
5. tin was used to solder elements of valve in place.
6.The vacuum creates an environment where radioactive or energetic particles can travel without interacting with and being blocked by oxygen and gas molecules between the electrodes
7.I think that any good p-type semiconductor could be used in the place of gallium-doped germanium. Standard Boron-doped silicon may work just as well.
8.Polonium (Po-210) emits alpha particles which interacted with Beryllium creating fast neutrons.
9.A mediator may have been used to slow and create thermal neutrons
10.Bismuth Bi-209 can capture a neutron and then go through beta decay (electron emission) and transmute into more Polonium (Po-210).
11.The tuned HF electric signal at phononic resonance may have made the beta-capture by the semi-conductor or the alpha-capture by the bismuth more efficient.
12.p-type semiconductor captures and conducts electrons to transformers and then to the load.

A possible idea to recreate the Moray Device and test this idea of "Speed of Electronic/Phononic coupling/Quantum Transition" is to take a signal generator and apply a signal across a solid-state promethium-147 or Tritium beta-battery.

1. You likely may not need the antenna and ground. All you may need is a signal generator.
2. a promethium -147 beta-battery like was used in pacemakers.
3. joule ringer circuit to convert and transform the current to high frequency DC to drive the load.

An explanation of what the HF frequency connected to the semiconductor is doing is turning the band gap. Silicon or germanium semiconductors have a band gap of 1 eV. The energies of emitted beta particles is 1 MeV. The particles are so energetic the substrate cannot "catch" them. Thus most pass right through.

Another possibility is that the Moray Valve could have been a Field Emission Tube? New electron microscopes (FESEM) and x-ray tubes use cold cathodes like the Moray Valve.

1. It was a Cold Cathode Field Emmision Vacuum Tube. Electrons liberated from the Cathode by the high vacuum and application of high voltage.
2. It used germanium and iron sulfide as one of the earliest uses of solid-state semiconductors.
3. It had Molybdenum Sulfide in it which material science is calling the "new graphene" and the possible basis for next generation semiconductors.

Monday, February 18, 2013

Mormon Think's Anti-Mormon Compilation

An intellectually, critical website entitled "Mormon Think" released a compilation of 95 complaints against the LDS Church. None of these points are new but just a compilation of old, worn-out, and recycled criticism by enemies of the Church. I can sit down right now and easily address every point.

If anyone from "Mormon Think" think's that what they are doing by rehashing all these questions is at all useful please consider this. Religion is about encouraging its members to be charitable and virtuous. I have a friend who has come off of 6 months of drug rehab and has been visiting your site. Doubt is not what this person needs right now. What this person needs is to be strong and to stay sober for himself and his family. All these points detract from the purpose of religion. Is it effective in teaching its people to be charitable and virtuous? That's it. If it is a success in doing this, that's what matters most. This is the big picture.

When it comes to anti-mormon criticism, it comes down to desire. If you already have a testimony or truly have a desire to know the truth; then these criticisms are just a learning tool. However, if a person is already looking for a reason to not repent, not investigate, or leave the church: then they may find what they have been looking for.

When you publicly and falsely criticize another person or their religion; isn't there a responsibility to then publicly apologize and retract the criticism when the criticisms have been demonstrated to be based on faulty assumptions?

1. The primary translation method occurred by Joseph Smith putting his face in a hat and reading a rock known as a seer stone.

Not new. Using the hat does look silly but was a good way to decrease ambient light. This seemed to be an easier method than putting on the cumbersome Breastplate of Laban with the spectacles that held both seer-stones.

2. There is no archaeological evidence of the Book of Mormon.

Many details are being proved right every day. However when it comes to Nephite artifacts, there won't be any soon because artifacts would destroy the purpose of the Book of Mormon, which is to help us learn to rely on the testimony of the Lords prophets and the Holy Ghost and not artifacts. If we had artifacts we wouldn't need prophets or a spiritual witness. Bible artifacts don't prove the Bible. Nephite artifacts would prove the Book of Mormon.

3. The Book of Mormon is filled with anachronisms that also damage credibility as a Divine record.

The Book of Mormon may well contain anachronisms. However, many details are being proved true every day. Other substitute words (wheat, barley) may have been used when required. Focusing on a specific word usage detracts from the overall message of the Book of Mormon which is not about wheat vs. quinoa. Nephites brought seed with them.

4. DNA evidence shows that Native Americans do not come from Middle Eastern heritage.

Haplogroup X comes from the Middle East and is a founding mt-DNA Haplogroup. "Principal" means most important. Nephi says only a "remnant of his seed" would survive into the Last Days.

5. Many Book of Mormon names and places are strikingly similar to local name and places.

I have seen the famous crude map of the Great Lakes region created by an LDS critics and studied professional maps available online from the 1920-40's. I couldn't find most if any of the place names used in the crude map nor in the Book of Mormon.

6. The Book of Mormon teaches a Trinitarian view of the Godhead.

Trinitarian vs LDS view on the Godhead is very similar. Except, LDS are not the ones that have to explain how 1 God = 1 Being = 3 Persons. LDS view more resembles Justin Martyr's explanation to Trypho.

7. Evidence supports that Joseph Smith plagiarized a significant portion of the Book of Mormon.

The Book of Mormon quotes from the Bible and cites the source when it does. The Book of Mormon uses King James/Tyndale English to help readers. Doctrine is taught and explained using similar phraseology. And let us not forget it is the same God who is the source of both works. Also, the idea that Native American's could be descended from a lost and scattered branch of Israel goes back to Columbus.

8. For a book Joseph Smith claimed to be "the most correct of any book on earth," .... has undergone nearly 4,000 changes.

Most of the changes are small grammatical or punctuation fixes. There have been no significant doctrinal revisions. A few grammatical changes have been made to clarify verses where unfamiliar hebraic language structure may have led some to misinterpret it.

The Book of Mormon is correct not that it doesn't contain grammatical errors. The writers concede their are "weaknesses in writing". The Book is correct because it leads mankind to the true religion and church of Christ.

9. The Book of Mormon includes Biblical passages that were later changed in Joseph Smith's translation of the Bible.

Yes, When the Book of Mormon quotes the OT, God used the KJV/Tyndale language when He gave the translation to Joseph Smith. Also, Lehi predicted the OT would no longer be "dimmed by time" from that point. The Dead Sea Scrolls support Lehi's prophecy that the OT hasn't changed much since 600 bc except for missing numerous books.

Joseph Smith's "Inspired Version" was not a translation in an academic sense. Smith wasn't putting down how the Hebrew or Greek should have been translated but how the prophetic idea could have or should have been worded to clarify meaning. In this way, the version was more of a prophetic commentary.

10. The story of Laban in First Nephi illustrates that God's command must invariably be followed, even if it means committing murder.

According to the Law of Moses, Nephi was covenant-bound to take Laban's life. Christians do not live under the same covenant. Nephi could have easily excluded these uncomfortable details. In Satan's game you never kill the enemy king. Conversely, God's does't play Chess.

11. The Book of Mormon quotes Bible verses written after 600 B.C. In other words, these passages didn't yet exist when Lehi left Jerusalem.

Christ gives the Nephites some scripture that had been given to Malachi. Other than that, it has already been explained that God used KJV/Tyndale English so when teaching a similar teaching both often use similar language. This helps with cross-referencing between scriptures .

12. scholars have found the original papyrus Joseph translated and have dated it in first century AD, nearly 2,000 years after Abraham could have written it.

"Written by the hand of Abraham" doesn't mean it wasn't a copy of a copy of a copy of a copy. It just means the words are Abraham's words not that they are his actual pen strokes.

13. Egyptologists have found the source material for the Book of Abraham to be nothing more than a common funerary text.

Joseph Smith came into procession of a collection of scrolls. Only one was by Abraham. Smith described the dimensions of the Abraham scroll in his notes and none of the surviving scrolls match the description. The collection was damaged in the 1871 Chicago Fire.

14. The Church has denied that Joseph made Abrahamic claims about the papyrus,

If Satan can get you wrapped up in details about the scroll authenticity, then you miss out on the spiritual message and power of the translation. Just read it focusing on what God is teaching and you will know the truth. It is beautiful and powerful scripture.

15. Joseph was fooled into thinking the Kinderhook plates were ancient records

One-sided account by an enemy meant to discredit Smith.

16. Joseph Smith showed his ineptitude for translation when he declared a Greek Psalter to be Egyptian hieroglyphics.

One-sided account by an enemy meant to discredit Smith.

17. Joseph Smith illegally married at least 33 women, some of whom were as young as 14 years old.

These marriages were symbolic family sealings and Genetic testing fails to prove that any of the marriages were consummated even when rumors claim they were. As Maury Povich would say "Joseph Smith, you are not the father!"

18. Joseph Smith married at least 8 to 11 women who were already married to other men .

Again, these marriages were symbolic family sealing and Genetic testing fails to prove that any of the marriages were consummated even when rumors claim they were. As Maury Povich would say "Joseph Smith, you are not the father!"

19. It is known that Joseph Smith practiced polygamy, but it is also true that Joseph was accused of sexual impropriety multiple times

These marriages were symbolic and Genetic testing fails to prove that any of the marriages were consummated even when rumors claim they were. As Maury Povich would say "Joseph Smith, you are not the father!"

20. Joseph Smith and a young woman named Fanny Alger engaged in what Oliver Cowdery called "a dirty, nasty, filthy affair".

Soon after Ms. Alger was symbolically sealed to Joseph Smith, Ms. Alger turned up pregnant. Rumors and accusations flew. However modern genetic testing of Orison Smith descendants prove Joseph Smith was NOT the father. Nevertheless, Joseph protected Ms. Alger and never "threw her under the bus". Smith took all the criticism and blame. Ms. Alger was a Hancock and while she left the church and never spoke of what happened even to family, the entire Hancock family has stayed active to the present day.

21. Leaders of the Church, starting with Joseph Smith, systematically lied about practicing polygamy.

It has been LDS policy that Polygamy was not to be generally practiced nor encouraged. Polygamy was a calling. This distinction is the basis for the accusation.

22. Joseph Smith routinely lied to his wife Emma about his extra-monogamous activities,

Read "In Sacred Loneliness". Emma knew and supported the symbolic sealing to Fanny Alger. When Ms. Alger turned up pregnant, and there were false accusations and rumors, Emma Smith's support then waxed and wained with the rumors that the symbolic sealings may be less-than-symbolic. Modern genetics vindicates Joseph Smith.

23. In 1886, John Taylor received a revelation regarding the practice of plural marriage. In the revelation, the Lord told Taylor "I have not revoked this law, nor will I, for it is everlasting." Four years later, Wilford Woodruff contradicted Taylor's revelation by issuing the 1890 Manifesto.

The Manifesto doesn't revoke the law, but LDS membership is commanded to no longer observe the law. Consequently, the world and the Church is under condemnation for not living it. In other words, we are living without the blessings we could have had.

24. The Church historically lied and presently still lies in telling the membership and outside media that polygamy ended in 1890. In actuality, Church-sanctioned and performed plural marriages continued until 1904 and beyond.

The Church generally ended polygamy in 1890. A very small minority of cases continued afterward. The Church typically sent polygamist members to live in Mexico. Obviously, It was a very difficult transition.

25. Jacob 2:24 vs. D&C 132:38-39 This is one example of many scriptural inconsistencies in LDS canon.

Where are the others? I'm sure you would have listed them. Truth is that these scriptures taken together are both true. David and Solomon's actions were an abomination only when and because they took wives they were not given by God. Again, polygamy is to be a calling and not generally practiced.

26. The Church allowed an adulterer, Richard Lyman, to serve as an apostle for 18 years before excommunicating him.

Judas was also allowed to be an Apostle as well. Sinners hide their sins. If you don't ask you don't receive. Mr. Lyman was good about not giving anyone cause to ask the question.

27. Doctrine & Covenants 121:36 Given this fact, ordinances performed unrighteously (such as those by Apostle Lyman for 18 years) should not be acceptable in the eyes of God or the Church. However, such ordinances are rarely, if ever, re-performed.

Lyman's sins to not affect his priesthood administration, only his ministry and his own salvation. My stake president was ex-comunicated growing up. I think the LDS Church should be praised for not covering things like this up. No need to punish the people, just the sinner for their own sins. Priesthood is Gods authority which is still valid when He has authorized it regardless of the sinners performing them. We are all sinners.

28. In defiance of God's command to not join any churches, Joseph Smith tried to join the Methodist Church.

Joseph Smith History clearly says he continued to attend various religious meetings. Joining means being baptized not having your name on a roll.

29. Joseph Smith told multiple different versions of the events surrounding the First Vision.

Joseph Smith wrote several accounts and included details based on his audience. He was picking his battles "so-to-speak". In the early account he was likening his vision to that of Paul. He had already well learned people's reaction when trying to tell people he saw two personages.

30. The First Vision was not taught in church until at least 12 years after it happened. Why would such a miraculous event not be shared at the outset?

Joseph Smith got cruelly persecuted for claiming he saw the First Vision. Accordingly, he chose to focus on using the Book of Mormon to persuade people of the truth. Again, presentation is part-of-the-battle. That is why groups like "Mormon Matters" insist on telling the LDS story with the worst possible presentation. Their whole crux is about presentation. They want their ugly, twisted, faithless version of history told. Why not let the believer tell their own story? Why can't a person or group have the right to define themselves?

31. Between the time of the First Vision and the translation of the Book of Mormon, Joseph Smith was convicted of fraud.

Joseph Smith was never convicted in a court of law. The paper that turned up recently which supposedly records a conviction from 1826 for "glass looking" is a fraud because none of the subsequent trials make mention of it at all.

32. Several early accounts published by the Church claim that the angel who visited Joseph Smith was Nephi.

Not new. If it is true the change prevents confusion. The Book of Mormon doesn't need a 5th Book of Nephi. The first printing of the Book of Mormon uses the name Moroni . Maybe Moroni himself made the change when he wrote the last part of the Book of Mormon.

33. Given its dimensions and weight, the Gold Plates would have been quite difficult to transport.

The witnesses described the plates as "having the appearance of gold". Tumbaga is an Ancient American alloy of gold and copper that appears golden. The book was not a solid block of gold. However, even with unevenness of the pages, the book would be heavy and I'm sure this is part of the reason why Joseph was not allowed to take the plates but met with the angel for 4 years.

34. One of the witnesses claimed to see the plates only with "spiritual eyes".

The 3 witnesses not only saw the plates but they saw the angel Moroni and heard the voice of God. If it was a vision or not its kind-of-like Paul saying he didn't know (2Cor12).

35. Brigham Young claimed that there was a cave located at the Hill Cumorah containing "wagon loads" of ancient records "piled up in the corners and along the walls". No such cave has ever been found.

We don't know if Brigham Young was transported to another location. You assume that the Camorah where Moroni hid the abridged record was the same place where the Nephites had their last stand and Mormon deposited all the Nephite records from which the abridgment was taken.

36. Although the Priesthood is now taught to have been restored in 1829, Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery made no such claim until at least 1834. Why did it take five years for Joseph to tell members of the Church about the Priesthood?

Priesthood being restored was preached when the church was organized in 1830 and members were baptized. Joseph was learning right along with everyone else. He found success in a focus on the Book of Mormon. You pick your battles and don't know where best to start and what details to include. All those angels appearing could get confusing. The media already routinely confuses the First Vision and the appearance of Moroni.

37. The name of the restored Church was changed several times in the first few years after it was established.

Yep, Joseph Smith preferred "Church of Christ" or "the Church of Jesus Christ". You know it had to be revelation when it was decided to go with "the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints".

38. Joseph Smith smoked tobacco and drank tea, coffee, and alcohol long after he revealed the Word of Wisdom.

Yes, the revelation was given not as a commandment until after prohibition was repealed. 1Cor5:11 says "drunkenness" should be prohibited. But due to conspiracy, better that we all just abstain for the benefit of the weak.

39. Joseph Smith taught "that no official member in this Church is worthy to hold an office" if he neglects to obey the Word of Wisdom.

Not sure if he was referring to 1Cor5:11 "drunkenness" or any use at all. The Church has received this by commandment now so, we are expected now to abstain. I'm sure we could even live it better by focusing on the do's and not just the don'ts.

40. Joseph Smith and other early leaders taught that because animals had spirits, they should only be eaten in times of "dire necessity".

The language of the word of wisdom about eating meat sparingly does not suggest "seasonal or situational veganism". This is a misunderstanding of the language. Remember, Christ ate broiled fish.

41. Brigham Young owned a distillery in Utah.

Yes, he did. Alcohol has medicinal purposes and must be produced in a still. LDS sold to the army and wagon trains. Complete abstinence wasn't accepted until after the repeal of prohibition. Drunkenness according to 1 Cor5:11 was prohibited.

42. the shift seems to have taken place for political reasons surrounding Prohibition.

Yes, strict abstinence was proposed and accepted by the church following the repeal of prohibition. Abstinence has saved a good number of weak saints.

43. Members are taught to believe that Joseph Smith received the endowment through revelation. However, much of the temple ceremony was copied directly from Masonry.

Masonry stole it from Solomon's temple. Joseph stole it back. In reality, what he took was only the method (ritual symbolism) and not the meaning. Saying the LDS ceremony is similar to Masonry is like saying a Powerpoint on Chemistry is the same as a Powerpoint on Art History.

44. The Church requires an oath of commitment from temple participants before the participant knows to what he or she is committing.

Not so. Masonry requires the oath before. LDS tells you what the commitment is first before having you promise to keep it sacred. That is always last.

45. Until 1990, the temple ceremony contained violent penalties requiring members to make symbolic gestures of slitting their own throats and bowels.

These are ancient, historical, and sacred symbols. People are more squeamish these days.

46. The removal of these penalties, among other changes, came not by revelation but as a result of a 1988 survey that found that many members were uncomfortable with the endowment.

Symbols change meaning with time. What is important is the lesson taught more than the symbols themselves. The change was appropriate considering our sensitivities to such things as you admit in #45, 47.

47. As disturbing as the temple penalties are, the fact that the ceremony changed is also troublesome because Joseph Smith taught that "ordinances instituted in the heavens are not to be altered or changed."

Meaning is more important than symbols. This is why Masonry is nothing like the LDS Temple. Masonry is about an oath of fraternity, and about contemplation of death, and legacy. LDS is about Christian charity and virtue, obedience and consecration. and an eternal perspective.

48. Leaders of the Church have allowed baptisms for dead Holocaust victims, despite promising not to do so.

LDS baptism for the dead do not make someone LDS. It just freely offers something. That's all. There is no harm in offering. The Church has been clear enough on the issue. It's not easy to police. We would like to identify and invite every living soul to be LDS. Its just an invitation.

49. The Church portrays Joseph Smith as a martyr jailed and killed for being a "lover of the cause of Christ". He was actually killed for destroying private property, trying to marry other men's wives, sharing Masonic secrets, anointing himself King of the world, and other reasons.

His killers painted their faces black. What good upstanding people do that for any reason? I am sure the group felt very justified. I am sure the writer of this "hacket-job" feels justified.

50. Church leaders teach that Joseph Smith destroyed the Nauvoo Expositor because it told anti-Mormon lies.

Since genetics proves that Joseph Smith didn't have relations with anyone other than Emma, then we know the Expositor was guilty of printing libel.

51. Joseph Smith claimed that he was going to Carthage "like lamb to the slaughter". What the Church doesn't teach is that Joseph had a gun in jail and shot several of his attackers.

Mormons are "pro-gun" and "pro-self-defence". Bro. Browning is a famous Mormon and gun smith. You may have heard of him. Defending yourself and your friends doesn't make you less of a martyr. 2 lives were saved at Carthage.

52. Joseph Smith set apart his son, Joseph III, to succeed him as prophet. Brigham Young admitted this, but ultimately refused to cede his own leadership to Joseph III.

Had Joseph Smith 111 stayed with the Saints he would have been a successor. There have been many Smith successors.

53. Joseph Smith taught that the moon is inhabited, and that its inhabitants are 6 feet tall and dressed like Quakers. Brigham Young also taught that the moon is inhabited, as well as the sun.

The Joseph Smith quote is hearsay from a random journal. The Brigham Young quote is in context of the 3 Degrees of glory. He said he "thinks" they are inhabited. People at that time generally did think that. It wasn't so crazy a thought at the time of Hershel.

54. Through revelation, Joseph Smith assembled an army of saints to walk to Missouri to redeem Zion. Known as Zion's camp, this march resulted in the death of 14 men and did not accomplish what it set out to do.

LDS feel it did accomplish what God meant for it to accomplish. Zion's camp revealed who was loyal to God just as this list will.

55. After Joseph Smith's prophecy to sell the copyright to the Book of Mormon failed, he explained it away by saying that some prophecies come from the devil.

Many are. I'm glad it didn't sell. Selling a copyright would have been an unwise decision.

56. Joseph Smith made a number of other prophecies that never came to pass. Apologists use manipulative tactics to justify Joseph's failures.

Critics make over-generalized and unjustified statements.

57. Brigham Young taught that Adam is our father and God, a teaching that later prophets have admitted as not true.

Brigham was teaching that our physical Father Adam had already resurrected and entered into his godhood and therefore was "the only god with which we had to do". Many misunderstood and still misunderstand what was being taught.

58. Wilford Woodruff pronounced "the Lord will never permit me or any other man who stands as president of this Church to lead you astray."

True statement. I am on track.

59. Members of the Church are taught that prophets talk to God and speak for God. But some modern-day prophets admitted that they had never seen, heard, or received revelations from God.

Revelation by the Power of the Holy Ghost is revelation. Whether knowledge is received by God the Father or God the Son or God the Holy Spirit, the important thing is that it is of God.

60. The Quorum of the Twelve and members of the First Presidency are sustained as "prophets, seers, and revelators". Regardless, they haven't prophesied, seen, or revealed much of anything over the last 100 years.

Prophecy is more to do with testifying of Christ than predicting the future . I can make a good list of more recent predictions come true.
Prophecy isn't advertised but kept sacred . The miracle of Joseph Smith is manmade things evolve over time. Joseph Smith before his death had laid out all the major doctrine, scripture, and organization of the LDS Religion and it has stayed relatively unchanged except for a few changes. You complain about a few necessary changes and then you complain that the new prophets aren't doing enough prophet stuff.

70. The Church has knowingly allowed and at times encouraged unethical missionary recruiting practices including baseball baptisms in the U.K. and soccer baptisms in Latin America.

The Church no, individual mission presidents maybe. individual missionaries and zone leaders, definitely.

71. Leaders pursued plans to build a nine-story addition to the Missionary Training Center, despite having promised that no MTC building would ever exceed four stories.

Anyone can change their mind and ask the community for permission later. The key is getting proper permission.

72. Church leaders teach members to bear testimony in order to obtain one. This is a manipulative practice that leads to confirmation bias.

Jesus Christ taught, "If any man will do His will, he will know of the doctrine; whether it is of God, or I speak of myself".

73. When asked whether Mormons believe that God was once a man, Gordon B. Hinckley dishonestly said "I don't know that we teach it. I don't know that we emphasize it."

The " as man now is, God once was" part is not and has never been emphasized in mainstream LDS curriculum. LDS curriculum focuses on "as God now is, man may become". Some LDS members may discuss this couplet by Pres. Lorenzo Snow, but Church curriculum does not. Its not even found in the current Sunday School manual "Teachings of Lorenzo Snow."

74. Brigham Young and other Church leaders taught that some sins ... could only be atoned for by literally spilling the blood of the sinner upon the earth.

I think having murderers volunteer for capital punishment with a hope of forgiveness instead of the endless death-row and repeal process is a good idea. My opinion.

75. In the past, the Church tried to deny Young's violent teaching. Now, most leaders admit that it was taught but denounce it as a false doctrine.

I don't have a problem with obvious murderers volunteering for the firing squad.

76. The Church has never truthfully admitted to, or apologized for, its involvement in the Mountain Meadows Massacre,

This involved local leadership only. The LDS church dedicated and maintains its own memorial at the site since 1999.

77. Brigham Young wrote a letter to Bishop Warren Snow of Manti, approving of violent actions taken by Snow.

This is anti-mormon critic referring to another anti-mormon book.

78. Even though Joseph Smith ordained a black man to the priesthood, the Church institutionally denied individuals of African descent full blessings of membership for over 100 years.

We opposed slavery. Blacks could be baptized. Future temple work for the dead guarantees all blessings including priesthood. Joseph Smith picked his battles.

79. For many years, leaders of the Church taught that dark skin is a curse that is caused by inferiority and sub-par valiance in the pre-existence.

Some LDS Leaders made assumptions in an attempt to defend Joseph Smith's ban. They were left to speculate never having been given a reason. However, Elder McConkie retracted after the revelation on the priesthood saying, "Forget what I, or Brigham Young or what anyone else has said that is contrary to the current light and knowledge we have now received. We spoke without understanding".

80. Despite overwhelming evidence of racism in the early modern Church, leaders continue to claim that the reason for the priesthood ban is unknown. As such, the Church has never admitted error or apologized for excluding blacks from the priesthood.

We say we don't know the reason any more than why Christ taught only Jews and then Gentiles later. We say we are glad the ban is over.

81. For many years, Church leaders taught that African Americans could only enter the Celestial Kingdom as servants.

Elder McConkie retracted. We don't have to defend retracted statements. The Celestial Kingdom is the highest Kingdom in LDS heaven. Temple work fir the dead offers priesthood and full blessings.

82. Unbeknownst to most members of the Church, early Latter-day Saint women were given a form of the priesthood, which they used to bless others by the laying on of hands.

Women have claim to all the blessings of the priesthood without any of the administrative responsibilities.

83. The Church has a long history of discriminating against women and teaching that they are to be subordinate to men.

This is not true any more than everyone of the day was more sexist. We can always do better, but LDS women have been been among the best treated in the the world. Watch the documentary "Grinding America Down" and what it has to say about the Feminist movement.

84. In campaigning against marriage equality on Prop 8 in 2008, the Church violated requirements of tax exempt organizations.

The Church can promote social issues and specific legislation but not specific candidates or parties.

85. Many homosexual members feel guilt, depression, and shame as a result of the stiff anti-gay rhetoric taught by church leaders. Some have even been driven to suicide.

During my medical and psychiatric training, I worked with this population at UNI in SLC. Guilt is terrible and painful. We want to reach out and love everyone. LDS strongly discourages its families from ever disowning children. However, LDS has a culture and values that do not change in this regard.

86. In the 1970's, LDS-owned Brigham Young University conducted electroshock therapy on gay students to try to make them straight.

At the UofU, I participated in electro-convulsive therapy for the severely depressed. What you do is stimulate a seizure. It can work great the patients say for refractory depression. Patients are sedated for the procedures.

Unfortunately, voluntarily administering shocks to his genitals while watching male nudity didn't have the desired therapeutic effect for John Cameron. Thankfully, the same study would NOT pass the IRB these days. And thankfully, Mr. Cameron does not report any permanent disfigurement from the study. I have a MS in Biochemistry at BYU and what individual researchers choose to study at BYU is not reviewed by the LDS Church leadership.

87. The Church refuses to disclose its finances, even to its tithe-paying members.

None of our business. We gave the Church the money and they can do with it whatever they wish. If I think the poor need helping, Ive got 90% left to help the poor with. Paying tithing doesn't or taxes doesn't relieve me of my responsibility to the poor.

88. In Kirtland, Joseph Smith set up an illegal bank that ultimately failed and caused many of the saints to lose their money.

Yep, this is what happens when you try to set up a bank in Satan's money system. Visit my website for an alternative I call the Safety Society System.

89. Despite being "lay clergy", mission presidents receive a significant amount of financial benefits from the Church.

Mission Presidents live in LDS housing and use LDS transportation and are provided LDS health insurance benefits. Just think about the full-time, 3-year job they are being asked to do for free. They have to look after over 200 19-21 year-olds. Many are asked to leave their current employment resulting in considerable lost wages.

90. The Church spent billions of dollars for the recently completed City Creek Center.

I used to work at Crossroads Mall. The Mall was to be abandoned and condemned. Salt Lake pleaded with the LDS Church to invest and save the downtown. For the LDS Church, the project has been a good financial investment. Its real estate development. No money is spent. the property is worth more now than the money put in.

91. Even if no tithing funds were used for City Creek, as the Church claims, nearly all non-tithing funds in possession of the church are derived from tithing.

Okay, it was a good real-estate investment and it saves SLC yet again.

92. The Church, which preaches and expects modesty in dress and abstinence from alcohol, is hypocritical in its advertising of the City Creek mall.

LDS Church doesn't control advertising for the mall.

Defending the Faith
93. The Church relies on FAIR, FARMS and other apologists to defend the faith, but intentionally keeps some distance in order to maintain plausible deniability.

The Church took possession of FARMS which is now the Maxwell Institute. FAIR is still independent. Im sure critics would like nothing more than for LDS leadership to engage them directly. This is an obvious mistake . Critic hacks can say anything and have nothing to lose. There is nothing to be gained by engaging anti's directly.

94. Church leaders often teach us that "warm feelings" are more valid in determining truth than actual, verifiable scholarship.

Yes, revelation via the Holy Ghost is more important.

95. The Church ignores the issues and questions of sincere truth-seeking members of the Church. We earnestly petition the Church to provide official, honest, and complete responses to these issues.

Again, there is nothing to be gained by engaging you directly when an average member can so easily do it.

Saturday, February 09, 2013

Common Sense Solutions

Dr. Benjamin Carson address at the national prayer breakfast.

Future Test

The globalist want to get the US involved in a confrontation with North Korea, Iran, and Syria. Daniel warns that Greece fell only after attacking Iran. However, I don't think any of these regimes are going to give the US or Israel the excuse the globalists want. And the US public cannot stomach another war; let alone 3. There is only one thing that will gain public acquiescence for more war, and that is a nuclear weapon detonated on American soil. Such an event would be the Ultimate False Flag, "The Sum of All Fears", and fulfill Mormon's Abinadi's Fire warning.

FEMA has been prepping for something big for the last decade. I work in the ED and have participated in research, focus groups, and numerus drills. I met very briefly with HHS Sec. Leavitt and Chief-of-Staff Rich McKeown (former Bishop) during their visit to Augusta on their medical system reform (Obamacare) tour. Following the SARS outbreak and H1N1 scares, I was researching solutions to the inevitable ventilator shortage problem. However, HHS has done very little that I am aware to remedy this with reguard to the CDC strategic national stockpile. After Superstorm Sandy it is clear Katrina, and other events like SARS were being used as a cover to prep for some other kind of event.

FEMA Preparation:
CDC Stategic National Stockpiles (mostly immunizations?)
Bodybags, graveliners, cemeteries
Relocation Residency Centers
DMORT training exercises
Super-morgue and mass immunization/processing center construction in Salt Lake City
MRE and ammunition purchases
Radiological Evidence Processing Facility
numerous Alqaeda nuclear threats
Colorado relocation drill
Interstate Hospital relocation drills
NorthCOM assigning 3rd Division 1st Brigade to CBRNE response.
Martial Law, viper team, gun confiscation drills

A nuclear false flag gets the US involved in Syria, Iran and North Korea all at the same time. After being hit, the administration will make the case that we can no longer afford to allow rouge nuclear powers to exist. While the US is engaged in numerus confrontations, China and Russia can strike. You say we are 10 years out. The very unauthoritative George Albert Smith Vision may say 4. The internet is claiming Daniel's 70 Shabua's begins with the creation of Israel in 1947-8? (1947 + 62 years = 2009) . However, I believe Daniel's 70 Shabua's begin with Israel's "Law of Return" in 1950? (1950 + 63 years = 2013).

Again, while also not authoritative, Patriarch Yohanni Wolfgramm supposedly was shown a nuclear detonation in Northern Utah at about Hill Air Force Base. As you have said, Hill manages the servicing of all silo-based ICBMs. This would be a valuable preliminary target for the globalists against the US.

We also know that the Tribulation will begin "in my house". A nuke detonation at about Hill would foreshadow the more global nuclear war that will follow. Then, after WW3 breaks out, investigators may then discover and pin the false flag on Israel, bringing the nations of the Earth against Israel. The globalist are always trying to associate and frame the US and Israel for their many dirty deeds.

We are also told "a test is coming" for the LDS. How many LDS will criticize the brethren for not foreseeing and warning the people of such a threat? Salt Lake has been mentally prepping for an Earthquake for decades. I don't think an Earthquake or even nuclear war, devistating as these would be, would be much of a test. My uncle and sisters in Davis County feel prepared. Preparation is over 90% in their wards. The LDS with foodstorage will feel reaffirmed in their faith and preparation. This by itself isn't a test. However, a localized nuclear false flag, martial law, relocation, gun confiscation with the internet spreading the idea that its the judgement of God on the Mormons. That would be something else.

Heber C. Kimball:
“The time is coming when we will be mixed up in these now peaceful valleys to the extent that it will be difficult to tell the face of a Saint, from the face of an enemy to the people of God. Then, brothers and sisters, look out for the great sieve, for there will be a great sifting time, and many will fall; for I say unto you there is a test, a TEST, a TEST is coming, and who will be able to stand?

This church and each member of it has before it many close places through which it will have to pass before the work of God is crowned with victory. To meet the difficulties that are coming, it will be necessary for you to be temporally and spiritually prepared, and have a knowledge of the truth of this work for yourselves. The difficulties will be of such a character that the man or woman who does not possess these things will fall.”

But amid it all there is sorrow and toil and testing. The Saints are tried to the full to see if they will abide in the Lord’s covenant even unto death (see D&C 98:14).

The way ahead is dark and dreary and dreadful. There will yet be martyrs; the doors in Carthage shall again enclose the innocent. We have not been promised that the trials and evils of the world will entirely pass us by.

If we, as a people, keep the commandments of God; if we take the side of the Church on all issues, both religious and political; if we take the Holy Spirit for our guide; if we give heed to the words of the apostles and prophets who minister among us—then, from an eternal standpoint, all things will work together for our good.

[Brigham Young]
When a man begins to find fault, inquiring in regard to this, that, and the other, saying, “Does this or that look as though the Lord dictated it?” you may know that that person has more or less of the spirit of apostasy. Every man in this Kingdom, or upon the face of the earth, who is seeking with all his heart to save himself, has as much to do as he can conveniently attend to, without calling in question that which does not belong to him. (Teachings of the Presidents of the church: Brigham Young, chapter 12, pp80-1)

Tuesday, February 05, 2013

Nuclear Survival

I am not sure anyone is an expert on surviving nuclear war.

1. radiation threat is different from a nuclear bombs vs. reactor meltdown
(radiation contination from a warhead is much shorter-lived than from a reactor)
2. radiation comes in 3 flavors: alpha, beta, gamma.
3. Don't live within the blast radius of a nuclear target.
4. If you need a nuclear bomb shelter, you are living too close to a target.
5. Joel Skousen's Strategic Relocation lists targets.
6. Do not live downwind of nuclear minutemen silos (Missouri, Nebraska, Montana, Dakotas).
7. Gamma radiation (like x-rays) is most penetrating, blocked by lead, radiation but will be mainly confined within the blast radius of warheads.
8. Alpha radiation (He2+) do not penetrate paper or skin but is very toxic if eaten or inhaled and will be present in fallout.
(alpha radiation is a helium atom missing 2 electrons. Inside the body the ions will steal electrons like Fluoride F-)
9. Beta radiation are energetic electrons (e-) blocked by plastic cause beta burns and are present in fallout. Also dangerous if ingested.
10. Highest gamma radiation will decay in 2 weeks.
11. most fallout will wash away in rain in about 2-3 months.
12. Radiation exposure doesnt make the exposed thing radioactive.
13. Radiation contamination does make the contaminated object radioactive.
14. Store food and water to prevent ingestion of radioactivity.
15. Ground burst bomb is dirtier than air burst bomb
16. largest average yield bomb is 1 MT(megaton). 5 mile radius blast, 10 mile fire radius.
17. 50 MT is only twice as big area of destruction. (diminishing returns)
18. Surface water will be contaminated. Filters dont filter radiation. Chlorine doesnt purify radiation
19. well water will be clean water
20. Use iodine (providone) painted on the skin to protect thyroid
21. Vitamin D and Whey Protein protect from from radiation.
(Whey protein increases inteacellular antioxidant glutathione)
22. taking glutathione does not increase glutathione.
23. Geiger counter and dosimeters can help monitor exposure, and contamination.
24. N95 mask can filter fallout from air
25. fallout (radioactive dirt) is radioactive due to exposure to neutrons during moment of detonation only.

Most all scriptures that address the calamities of the Last Days speak of fire and burning.

It is a myth that the US, Russia, or China have so many nuclear warheads they could destroy the Earth so-many-times over. The media perpetuates this myth because they are encouraging the US to unilaterally disarm.

The truth about nukes is that you don't get much more bang for the buck with a 50MT or a 100MT nuke over a 10MT nuke. They are bigger but only twice as big. Furthermore, nuclear scientists have long known that it's much more efficent to use 10 x 1MT independent warheads than a single 10MT warhead.

With this in mind, according to Nukemap the thermal radius of a 1 MT nuke is only about 7.25 miles. The blast and radiation radius is much smaller at about 5 miles. The thermal radius of a 10 MT nuke is only twice a 1 MT nuke with a 20-mile radius. The blast and radiation radius of a 10MT nuke is 10 miles.

My opinion is that nukes used by Russia and China will be within the 1-10MT range and with the Tritium "dial-a-nuke" system the yield may be tailored to suit the target.

Friday, February 01, 2013

20 Nuclear War Near-Misses

I was watching Tom Clancy's "Sum of All Fear's" where a One-World Order Globalist (Nazi) desires to bring about a fascist world dictatorship by creating a "false flag" nuclear event in the US, and blaming it on Russia and triggering WW3. Looking through history, it's amazing how close and how many times US and Russian leadership have contemplated "pushing the big red button". My only conclusion is that God must be in control and intervened many times to prevent us from blowing ourselves up.

I consider it very plausible that many of these events were not accidents. At least the fact that there is a big red "end of the world" button is no accident. I sleep better at night knowing we are a faulty circuit or computer glitch away from WW3. I am sure the Fabian Globalists have tried and will continue to try to bring about war in just the exact way this move depicts. Globalist can't have the control they want until the US Constitution and authentic constitutional government is destroyed.

20 Mishaps That Might Have Started Accidental Nuclear War
by Alan F. Philips, M.D.

Ever since the two adversaries in the Cold War, the U.S.A. an the U.S.S.R., realized that their nuclear arsenals were sufficient to do disastrous damage to both countries at short notice, the leaders and the military commanders have thought about the possibility of a nuclear war starting without their intention or as a result of a false alarm. Increasingly elaborate accessories have been incorporated in nuclear weapons and their delivery systems to minimize the risk of unauthorized or accidental launch or detonation. A most innovative action was the establishment of the "hot line" between Washington and Moscow in 1963 to reduce the risk of misunderstanding between the supreme commanders.

Despite all precautions, the possibility of an inadvertent war due to an unpredicted sequence of events remained as a deadly threat to both countries and to the world. That is the reason I am prepared to spend the rest of my life working for abolition of nuclear weapons.

One way a war could start is a false alarm via one of the warning systems, followed by an increased level of nuclear forces readiness while the validity of the information was being checked. This action would be detected by the other side, and they would take appropriate action; detection of the response would tend to confirm the original false alarm; and so on to disaster. A similar sequence could result from an accidental nuclear explosion anywhere. The risk of such a sequence developing would be increased if it happened during a period of increased international tension.

On the American side many "false alarms" and significant accidents have been listed , ranging from trivial to very serious, during the Cold War . Probably many remain unknown to the public and the research community because of individuals' desire to avoid blame and maintain the good reputation of their unit or command. No doubt there have been as many mishaps on the Soviet Side.

Working with any new system, false alarms are more likely. The rising moon was misinterpreted as a missile attack during the early days of long-range radar. A fire at a broken gas pipeline was believed to be enemy jamming by laser of a satellite's infrared sensor when those sensors were first deployed.

The risks are illustrated by the following selection of mishap. If the people involved had exercised less caution, or if some unfortunate coincidental event had occurred, escalation to nuclear war can easily be imagined. Details of some of the events differ in different sources: where there have been disagreements, I have chosen to quote those from the carefully researched book, The Limits of Safety by Scott D. Sagan. Sagan gives references to original sources in all instances.

The following selections represent only a fraction of the false alarms that have been reported on the American side. Many probably remain unreported, or are hidden in records that remain classified. There are likely to have been as many on the Soviet Side which are even more difficult to access.

1) November 5, 1956: Suez Crisis Coincidence

British and French Forces were attacking Egypt at the Suez Canal;. The Soviet Government had suggested to the U.S. that they combine forces to stop this by a joint military action, and had warned the British and French governments that (non-nuclear) rocket attacks on London and Paris were being considered. That night NORAD HQ received messages that:

(i) unidentified aircraft were flying over Turkey and the Turkish air force was on alert

(ii) 100 Soviet MIG-15's were flying over Syria

(iii) a British Canberra bomber had been shot down over Syria

(iv) the Soviet fleet was moving through the Dardanelles.

It is reported that in the U.S.A. General Goodpaster himself was concerned that these events might trigger the NATO operations plan for nuclear strikes against the U.S.S.R.

The four reports were all shown afterwards to have innocent explanations. They were due, respectively, to:

(i) a flight of swans

(ii) a routine air force escort (much smaller than the number reported) for the president of Syria, who was returning from a visit to Moscow

(iii) the Canberra bomber was forced down by mechanical problems

(iv) the Soviet fleet was engaged in scheduled routine exercises.

2) November 24, 1961: BMEWS Communication Failure

On the night of November 24, 1961, all communication links went dead between SAC HQ and NORAD. The communication loss cut off SAC HQ from the three Ballistic Missile Early Warning Sites (BMEWS) at Thule (Greenland,) Clear (Alaska,) and Fillingdales (England,). There were two possible explanations facing SAC HQ: either enemy action, or the coincidental failure of all the communication systems, which had redundant and ostensibly independent routes, including commercial telephone circuits. All SAC bases in the United States were therefore alerted, and B-52 bomber crews started their engines, with instructions not to to take off without further orders. Radio communication was established with an orbiting B-52 on airborne alert, near Thule. It contacted the BMEWS stations by radio and could report that no attack had taken place.

The reason for the "coincidental" failure was the redundant routes for telephone and telegraph between NORAD and SAC HQ all ran through one relay station in Colorado. At that relay station a motor had overheated and caused interruption of all the lines.

3) August 23, 1962: B-52 Navigation Error

SAC Chrome Dome airborne alert route included a leg from the northern tip of Ellesmore Island, SW across the Arctic Ocean to Barter Island, Alaska. On August 23, 1962, a B-52 nuclear armed bomber crew made a navigational error and flew 20 degrees too far north. They approached within 300 miles of Soviet airspace near Wrangel island, where there was believed to be an interceptor base with aircraft having an operational radius of 400 miles.

Because of the risk of repetition of such an error, in this northern area where other checks on Navigation are difficult to obtain, it was decided to fly a less provocative route in the future. However, the necessary orders had not been given by the time of the Cuban missile crisis in October 1962, so throughout that crisis the same northern route was being flown 24 hours a day.

4) August-October, 1962: U2 Flights into Soviet Airspace

U2 high altitude reconnaissance flights from Alaska occasionally strayed unintentionally into Soviet airspace. One such episode occurred in August 1962. During the Cuban missile crisis on October of 1962, the U2 pilots were ordered not to fly within 100 miles of Soviet airspace.

On the night of October 26, for a reason irrelevant to the crisis, a U2 pilot was ordered to fly a new route, over the north pole, where positional checks on navigation were by sextant only. That night the aurora prevented good sextant readings and the plane strayed over the Chukotski Peninsula. Soviet MIG interceptors took off with orders to shoot down the U2. The pilot contacted his U.S. command post and was ordered to fly due east towards Alaska. He ran out of fuel while still over Siberia. In response to his S.O.S., U.S. F102-A fighters were launched to escort him on his glide to Alaska, with orders to prevent the MIG's from entering U.S. airspace. The U.S. interceptor aircraft were armed with nuclear missiles. These could have been used by any one of the F102-A pilots at his own discretion.

5) October 24, 1962- Cuban Missile Crisis: A Soviet Satellite Explodes

On October 24, a Soviet satellite entered its own parking orbit, and shortly afterward exploded. Sir Bernard Lovell, director of the Jodrell Bank observatory wrote in 1968: "the explosion of a Russian spacecraft in orbit during the Cuban missile crisis... led the U.S. to believe that the USSR was launching a massive ICBM attack." The NORAD Command Post logs of the dates in question remain classified, possibly to conceal reaction to the event. Its occurrence is recorded, and U.S. space tracking stations were informed on October 31 of debris resulting from the breakup of "62 BETA IOTA."

6) October 25, 1962- Cuban Missile Crisis: Intruder in Duluth

At around midnight on October 25, a guard at the Duluth Sector Direction Center saw a figure climbing the security fence. He shot at it, and activated the "sabotage alarm." This automatically set off sabotage alarms at all bases in the area. At Volk Field, Wisconsin, the alarm was wrongly wired, and the Klaxon sounded which ordered nuclear armed F-106A interceptors to take off. The pilots knew there would be no practice alert drills while DEFCON 3 was in force, and they believed World War III had started.

Immediate communication with Duluth showed there was an error. By this time aircraft were starting down the runway. A car raced from command center and successfully signaled the aircraft to stop. The original intruder was a bear.

7) October 26, 1962- Cuban Missile Crisis: ICBM Test Launch

At Vandenburg Air Force Base, California, there was a program of routine ICBM test flights. When DEFCON 3 was ordered all the ICBM's were fitted with nuclear warheads except one Titan missile that was scheduled for a test launch later that week. That one was launched for its test, without further orders from Washington, at 4a.m. on the 26th.

It must be assumed that Russian observers were monitoring U.S. missile activities as closely as U.S. observers were monitoring Russian and Cuban activities. They would have known of the general changeover to nuclear warheads, but not that this was only a test launch.

8) October 26, 1962- Cuban Missile Crisis: Unannounced Titan Missile Launch

During the Cuba crisis, some radar warning stations that were under construction and near completion were brought into full operation as fast as possible. The planned overlap of coverage was thus not always available.

A normal test launch of a Titan-II ICBM took place in the afternoon of October 26, from Florida to the South Pacific. It caused temporary concern at Moorestown Radar site until its course could be plotted and showed no predicted impact within the United States. It was not until after this event that the potential for a serious false alarm was realized, and orders were given that radar warning sites must be notified in advance of test launches, and the countdown be relayed to them.

9) October 26, 1962- Cuban Missile Crisis: Malstrom Air Force Base

When DEFCON 2 was declared on October 24, solid fuel Minuteman-1 missiles at Malmstrom Air Force Base were being prepared for full deployment. The work was accelerated to ready the missiles for operation, without waiting for the normal handover procedures and safety checks. When one silo and missile were ready on October 26 no armed guards were available to cover transport from the normal separate storage, so the launch enabling equipment and codes were all placed in the silo. It was thus physically possible for a single operator to launch a fully armed missile at a SIOP target.

During the remaining period of the Crisis the several missiles at Malstrom were repeatedly put on and off alert as errors and defects were found and corrected. Fortunately no combination of errors caused or threatened an unauthorized launch, but in the extreme tension of the period the danger can be well imagined.

10) October, 1962- Cuban Missile Crisis: NATO Readiness

It is recorded on October 22, that British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan and NATO Supreme Commander, General Lauris Norstad agreed not to put NATO on alert in order to avoid provocation of the U.S.S.R. When the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff ordered DEFCON 3 Norstad was authorized to use his discretion in complying. Norstad did not order a NATO alert. However, several NATO subordinate commanders did order alerts to DEFCON 3 or equivalent levels of readiness at bases in West Germany, Italy, Turkey, and United Kingdom. This seems largely due to the action of General Truman Landon, CINC U.S. Air Forces Europe, who had already started alert procedures on October 17 in anticipation of a serious crisis over Cuba.

11) October, 1962- Cuban Missile Crisis: British Alerts

When the U.S. SAC went to DEFCON 2, on October 24, Bomber Command (the U.K.) was carrying out an unrelated readiness exercise. On October 26, Air Marshall Cross, CINC of Bomber Command, decided to prolong the exercise because of the Cuba crisis, and later increased the alert status of British nuclear forces, so that they could launch in 15 minutes.

It seems likely that Soviet intelligence would perceive these moves as part of a coordinated plan in preparation for immediate war. They could not be expected to know that neither the British Minister of Defense nor Prime Minister Macmillian had authorized them.

It is disturbing to note how little was learned from these errors in Europe. McGeorge Bundy wrote in Danger and Survival (New York: Random House 1988), "the risk [of nuclear war] was small, given the prudence and unchallenged final control of the two leaders."

12) October 28, 1962- Cuban Missile Crisis: Moorestown False Alarm

Just before 9 a.m., on October 28, the Moorestown, New Jersey, radar operators informed the national command post that a nuclear attack was under way. A test tape simulating a missile launch from Cuba was being run, and simultaneously a satellite came over the horizon.

Operators became confused and reported by voice line to NORAD HQ that impact was expected 18 miles west of Tampa at 9:02 a.m. The whole of NORAD was reported, but before irrevocable action had taken place it was reported that no detonation had taken place at the predicted time, and Moorestown operators reported the reason for the false alarm.

During the incident overlapping radar's that should have confirmed or disagreed were not in operation . The radar post had not received routine information of satellite passage because the facility carrying out that task had been given other work for the duration of the crisis.

13) October 28, 1962- Cuban Missile Crisis: False Warning Due to Satellite

At 5:26 p.m. on October 28, the Laredo radar warning site had just become operational. Operators misidentified a satellite in orbit as two possible missiles over Georgia and reported by voice line to NORAD HQ. NORAD was unable to identify that the warning came from the new station at Laredo and believed it to be from Moorestown, and therefore more reliable. Moorestown failed to intervene and contradict the false warning. By the time the CINC, NORAD had been informed, no impact had been reported and the warning was "given low credence."

14) November 2, 1962: The Penkovsky False Warning

In the fall of 1962, Colonel Oleg Penkovsky was working with the Soviets as a double agent for the (U.S.) C.I.A. He had been given a code by which to warn the CIA if he was convinced that a Soviet attack on the United States was imminent. He was to call twice, one minute apart, and only blow into the receiver. Further information was then to be left at a "dead drop" in Moscow.

The pre-arranged code message was received by the CIA on November 2, 1962.

It was known at the CIA that Penkovsky had been arrested on October 22. Penkovsky knew he was going to be executed. It is not known whether he had told the KGB the meaning of the code signal or only how it would be given, nor is it known exactly why or with what authorization the KGB staff used it. When another CIA agent checked the dead drop he was arrested.

15) November, 1965: Power Failure and Faulty Bomb Alarms

Special bomb alarms were installed near military facilities and near cities in the U.S.A., so that the locations of nuclear bursts would be transmitted before the expected communication failure. The alarm circuits were set up to display a red signal at command posts the instant that the flash of a nuclear detonation reached the sensor and before the blast put it out of action. Normally the display would show a green signal, and yellow if the sensor was not operating or was out of communication for any other reason.

During the commercial power failure in the NE United States, in November 1965, displays from all the bomb alarms for the area should have shown yellow. In fact, two of them from different cities showed red because of circuit errors. The effect was consistent with the power failure being due to nuclear weapons explosions, and the Command Center of the Office of Emergency Planning went on full alert. Apparently the military did not.

16) January 21, 1968: B-52 Crash near Thule

Communication between NORAD HQ and the BMEWS station at Thule had 3 elements:

1. Direct radio communication.

2. A "bomb alarm" as described above.

3. Radio Communication relayed by a b-52 bomber on airborne alert.

On January 21, 1968, a fire broke out in the b-52 bomber on airborne alert near Thule. The pilot prepared for an emergency landing at the base. However the situation deteriorated rapidly, and the crew had to bale out. There had been no time to communicate with SAC HQ, and the pilotless plane flew over the Thule base before crashing on the ice 7 miles miles offshore. Its fuel and high explosive component of its nuclear weapons exploded, but there was no nuclear detonation.

At that time, the "one point safe" condition of the nuclear weapons could not be guaranteed, and it is believed that a nuclear explosion could have resulted form accidental detonation of the high explosive trigger. Had there been a nuclear detonation even at 7 miles distant, and certainty much nearer the base, all three communication methods would have given an indication consistent with a succsessful nuclear attack on both the base and the B-52 bomber. The bomb alarm would have shown red, and the other two communication paths would have gone dead. It would hardly have been anticipated that the combination could have been caused by accident, particularly as the map of the routes for B-52 airborne flights approved by the President showed no flight near to Thule. The route had been apparently changed without informing the White House.

17) October 24-25, 1973: False Alarm During Middle East Crisis

On October 24, 1973, when the U.N. sponsored cease fire intended to end the Arab-Israeli war was in force, further fighting stared between Egyptian and Israeli troops in the Sinai desert. U.S. intelligence reports and other sources suggested that the U.S.S.R. was planning to intervene to protect the Egyptians. President Nixon was in the throes of Watergate episode and not available for a conference, so Kissinger and other U.S. officials ordered DEFCON 3. The consequent movements of aircraft and troops were of course observed by Soviet intelligence. The purpose of the alert was not to prepare for war, but to warn the U.S.S.R. not to intervene in the Sinai. However, if the following accident had not been promptly corrected then the Soviet command might have had a more dangerous interpretation.

On October 25, while DEFCON 3 was in force, mechanics were repairing one of the Klaxons at Kinchole Air Force Base, Michigan, and accidentally activated the whole base alarm system. B-52 crews rushed to their aircraft and started the engines. The duty officer recognized the alarm was false and recalled the crews before any took off.

18) November 9, 1979: Computer Exercise Tape

At 8:50 a.m. on November 9, 1979, duty officers at 4 command centers (NORAD HQ, SAC Command Post, The Pentagon National Military Command Center, and the Alternate National Military Command Center) all saw on their displays a pattern showing a large number of Soviet Missiles in a full scale attack on the U.S.A. During the next 6 minutes emergency preparations for retaliation were made. A number of Air Force planes were launched, including the President's National Emergency Airborne Command Post, though without the President! The President had not been informed, perhaps because he could not be found.

No attempt was made to use the hot line either to ascertain the Soviet intentions or to tell the Soviets the reasons for U.S. actions. This seems to me to have been culpable negligence. The whole purpose of the "Hot Line" was to prevent exactly the type of disaster that was threatening at that moment.

With commendable speed, NORAD was able to contact PAVE PAWS early warning radar and learn that no missiles had been reported. Also, the sensors on the satellites were functioning that day and had detected no missiles. In only 6 minutes the threat assessment conference was terminated.

The reason for the false alarm was an exercise tape running on the computer system. U.S. Senator Charles Percy happened to be in NORAD HQ at the time and is reported to have said there was absolute panic. A question was asked in Congress. The General Accounting Office conducted an investigation, and an off-site testing facility was constructed so that test tapes did not in the future have to be run on a system that could be in military operation.

19) June , 1980: Faulty Computer Chip

The Warning displays at the Command Centers mentioned in the last episode included windows that normally showed

0000 ICBMs detected 0000 SLBMs detected

At 2:25 a.m. on June 3, 1980, these displays started showing various numbers of missiles detected, represented by 2's in place of one or more 0's. Preparations for retaliation were instituted, including nuclear bomber crews staring their engines, launch of Pacific Command's Airborne Command Post, and readying of Minutemen missiles for launch. It was not difficult to assess that this was a false alarm because the numbers displayed were not rational.

While the cause of that false alarm was still being investigated 3 days later, the same thing happened and again preparations were made for retaliation. The cause was a single faulty chip that was failing in a random fashion. The basic design of the system was faulty, allowing this single failure to cause a deceptive display at several command posts.

The following incident is added to illustrate that even now, when the Cold War has been over for 8 years errors can still cause concern. This particular one could have hardly brought nuclear retaliation.; but there are still 30,000 nuclear weapons deployed, and two nuclear weapon states could get into a hostile adversarial status again.

20) January, 1995: Russian False Alarm

On January 25, 1995, the Russian early warning radar's detected an unexpected missile launch near Spitzbergen. The estimated flight time to Moscow was 5 minutes. The Russian President, the Defense Minister and the Chief of Staff were informed. The early warning and the control and command center switched to combat mode. Within 5 minutes, the radar's determined that the missile's impact would be outside the Russian borders.

The missile was Norwegian, and was launched for scientific measurements. ON January 16, Norway had notified 35 countries including Russia that the launch was planned. Information had apparently reached the Russian Defense Ministry, but failed to reach the on-duty personnel of the early warning system.

See article in Scientific American by Bruce G. Blair, Harold A. Feiveson and Frank N. von Hippel

Comment and Note On Probability

The probability of actual progression to nuclear war on any one of the occasions listed may have been small, due to planned "fail-safe" features had failed. However, the accumulation of small probabilities of disaster from a long sequence of risks add up to serious danger.

There is no way of telling what the actual level of risk was in these mishaps but if the chance of disaster in every one of the 20 incidents had been only 1 in 100, it is mathematical fact that the chance of surviving al 20 would have been 82%, i.e. about the same as the chance of surviving a single pull of the trigger at Russian roulette played with a 6 shooter. With a similar series of mishaps on the Soviet side: another pull of the trigger. If the risk in some of the events had been as high as 1 in 10, then the chance of surviving just seven such events would have been less than 50:50.

BMEWS: Ballistic Missile Early Warning Site
CIA: Central Intelligence Agency
CINC: Commander in Chief
DEFCON: Defense Readiness Condition (DEFCON 5 is the peacetime state; DEFCON 1 is a maximum war readiness).
HQ: Headquarters
ICBM: Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (land based)
KGB: Soviet Secret Police and Intelligence
NORAD: North American Air Defense Command
PAVE PAWS: Precision Acquisition of Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System
SAC: Strategic Air Command
SIOP: Single Integrated Operational Plan
SLBM: Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile

Principal Sources
Britten, Stewart: The Invisible Event , (London: Menard Press, 1983).
Calder, Nigel: Nuclear Nightmares , (London: British Broadcasting Corporation, 1979)
Peace Research Reviews , vol. ix: 4, 5 (1984); vol. x: 3, 4 (1986) (Dundas, ON.: Peace Research Institute, Dundas).
Sagan, Scott D.: The Limits of Safety , (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, (1993).