Monday, April 13, 2015

Tactile Augmented Reality

Dr. Eagleman is an American neuroscientist at the Baylor School of Medicine, Laboratory for Perception and Action. Dr. Eagleman gave a TED talk at the following link: http://youtu.be/4c1lqFXHvqI.  This talk discusses the principles of sensory perception and how the brain makes sense and responds to sensory inputs.  

The brain is set up to perform pattern recognition and association. The brain doesn't care how or where the data comes from. You give the brain any sensory inputs and given some time, the brain will begin to draw out patterns in the data and then associate those patterns with other patterns. The brain is designed to recognize patterns, make and then reinforce connections.  

Humans have been designed with 5 major senses: sound, sight, taste, touch, smell.  These 5 senses exclude the inner ear that is designed to sense orrientation and acceleration.  There are other refined senses in the animal kindgom like a bat's echolocation, or a pit viper's thermal sense.  Birds have magnetite in their heads that helps them orrient to the Earth's magnetic field.

For the brain, everything is just electrochemical signals and synapses. According to the brain, it doesn't really care what the peripheral input devices are.  We see this with the blind and deaf. Many blind people learn braille and instead of seeing words written on a page and associating meaning with various symbols, braille readers (blind or seeing) can teach their brains to "read" by associating meaning with tactile bumps on a page instead of printed symbols.

On one side, scientists have been moderately successful in bionically restoring sight and sound perception to the blind and deaf by creating artificial eyes and cochlear implants which simulate natural sensory organs.  Other experiments have been done using sensory replacement or augmentation. In this case one sense can be converted into another.  In this way, blind or deaf persons have been able to see or hear by converting a digital image or audio into tactile sensations on the forehead, tongue or back.

Sensory associations can get a bit messed up too.  Synesthesia is when certain people associate certain numbers or letters with a color or shape. Projecting synesthesia report actually seeing certain numbers as having a color.  PTSD is a disabling disorder where victims experience flashbacks, and strong negative emotions, anxiety, panic in association with certain "trigger" sounds, smells, taste, or sights.  On the positive side people can have positive emotional response where the smell of fresh baked bread "takes them back" to happy emotional memories of childhood or a vacation.

Dr. Eagleman talked about using a vest that transmitted sound into tactile stimulation for the deaf. This served as a cheaper and much less invasive alternative than undergoing a coclear implant.   But the interesting part was the potential adaptation of this "augmented reality" technology for the common man. So far, scientists have envisioned augmented reality to involve glasses or contacts which project or overlay information into our visual field. The downside to doing this is that ths paradigm may detract and distract from our visual senses. 

According to Dr. Eagleman, the visual sense is really very limited. Despite the complexity and amount of data being imputed to our brains, the brain has to narrowly scan through that ocean of visual data and pick out patterns one at a time.

Instead, Dr. Eagleman suggests augmented reality data could better fed to us by tactile sensations. The brain receives a deluge of vibratory, touch and proprioception data from our skin allowing our brain to know exactly where each part of our body is at any given moment. This spacial sensation makes it possible for us to cognitively visualize, project, predict, and make coordinated complex movements. 

Dr. Eagleman is of the opinion that augmented reality data may be more efficiently and less obtrusively fed to us through tactile stimulation instead of visually using a vest with hundreds or thousands or potentially millions of tactile vibratory and light touch stimulators on our back and torso.  While our eyes, ears, arms and legs are always being heavily used, the advantage of using your chest, abdomen and back is that this sensory real estate is not really being used much.

The potential possibilities of using an augmented reality tactile vest is to unobtrusively receive needed information like turn-by-turn directions (like the apple iwatch tactile sensor) but also recieving realtime telemetry data on the orientation and functioning of a complex machine like an airplane.  In this way a pilot could "feel" the status of the airplane at every moment.  Similarly, health data could be transmitted through a similar system allowing a nurses to "feel" and continuously monitor the status of their patients.

Are there downsides to this technology? Like any technology, it can be abused and used to manipulate. Imagine a matrix-like dystopian future with 7 billion people or more all wearing these augmented reality vests?  Could central governments be tempted to begin sending unsolicited information and stimulus to users to distort, decieve, modify, and manipulate behavior, emotions and attitudes?  

In the future "internet of things" are we all humans to be plugged into a grid where central governments and corporations begin using people and their processing potential in crowdsourced, distributed computing projects? Will humans together with our appliances, toothbrushes and even forks become yet another "thing" to be controlled through a future global matrix?

http://www.cbronline.com/news/internet-of-things/wearables/human-sat-nav-guides-users-with-electrodes-4552415

Okay, I wasn't really taking this Matrix thing serious until I just read the following article about "Human Sat Nav" system controlling movement with electrodes and electrical impulses to the muscles. Is this wearable tech one step closer to the creation of a Borg-like Hive and Collective?  Resistance is futile, you will be assimilated!

Tuesday, April 07, 2015

Metabolic Manipulation: Cancer Treatment Paradigm

Up to now, traditional cancer treatment involves a cocktail of super-expensive cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs that target rapidly dividing cells. The aim of our current treatment strategy is to give the patient just the right dose of poison that will kill the cancer but not the patient. With only a few exceptions, the focus on most cancer treatments has been to target rapidly dividing cells by directly damaging DNA (cisplatin, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide), indirectly damaging DNA (MTX, 5-FU), inhibiting DNA repair enzymes (etoposide), or by targeting key enzymes necessary for cellular division (paclitaxel, vincristin). The problem with this paradigm is that this selective killing isn't selective enough. However, this strategy is not the only one out there.

[Cytotoxic chemotherapy is very effective for leukemia and this article does not seek to discourage current effective and even currative treatment regimens.]

Another promising paradigm for cancer treatment would be to focus on the manipulation of metabolic pathways of cancer cells. Scientists are discovering that cancer cell metabolic pathways may be unique or at least more limited than normal cells. And it is these metabolic limitations that could be exploited. First off, we know that all cells in the body can generate energy using several anaerobic and aerobic mechanisms. These metabolic pathways include: anaerobic glycolysis, aerobic respiration (TCA cycle), oxidative phosphorylation, lipolysis (ketogenic), and gluconeogenesis,

One of the first identified biochemical hallmarks of tumor cells was a shift in glucose metabolism from aerobic oxidative phosphorylation to anaerobic glycolysis (the "Warburg effect" or "Warburg hypothesis"). Now, scientists have revealed that cancer cellular functions and growth are primarily dependent upon the anaerobic metabolism of glucose, fructose and lipid (lypolysis). Aerobic respiration via the TCA-cycle and Oxidative phosphorylation is very complex and requires intact mitochondria. Because of that complexity, mutated cancer cells can rarely depend on aerobic metabolism for energy. Instead, they rely primarily on the much simpler anaerobic glycolysis; using glucose and fructose as fuel. Otto Warburg, 1931 Nobel Laureate, was first to measure and explain the mechanisms behind the large amounts of lactic acid produced by cancer cells.

However, when glucose levels are low, cancer cells are in a pinch. They can't do aerobic respiration, so lacking glucose, they instead turn to ketogenic lipolysis for energy. But cancer cells have the complex machinery needed to transport lipids into the cell. Instead, in a low glucose environment, they use their damaged oxidative phosphorylation pathway and other pathways to generate high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These ROS are then secreted into the cells microenvironment where they damage nearby cells. In this way, cancer cells begin to parasitize nearby cells and literally eat their host alive.

New studies suggest that cancer cells may not generate ROS themselves, but instead, reprogram neighboring stromal fibroblast cells to generate high amounts of ROS for them. The ROS then damage neighboring cells resulting in lipid peroxidation, and the production of lactate, and ketones which the cancer cells can use for energy. Through this mechanism, tumors do not need much of a blood supply. Understanding how cancer cells metabolize energy, we can now develop new strategies to kill them.

Together, the medicines, herbs, and vitamins listed above should do two things. First, a low-fructose diet together with Metformin and DCA will serve to inhibit both gluconeogenesis and anerobic glycolysis and force cancer cells into lipolysis. While we want the force the cancer into a ketogenic state, a ketogenic diet and dehydration are discouraged because scientists believe that cancer cells may thrive on lactic acid and ketones. That said, this first strategy should force the cancer cells to depend primarily on lipolysis for energy.

Next, iron chelation is added to inhibit ROS formation. Antioxidants like Vitamin C, E, Co-enzyme Q10, and Cumin are added to prevent remaining ROS oxidative damage to surrounding tissues. Also, anti-inflammatory and immune modulating agents such as aspirin, cimetidine could be added to reduce inflammation and boost cellular and humeral immunity. All together, cancer cells should not be left with any alternative energy alternatives. Then, at that point, cancer cells would turn cannibalistic and should undergo autophagy.

The hope is that a paradigm focused on metabolic manipulation, will be not only more effective at curing cancer, but will avoid the terrible side effects of traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy. However, until this new paradigm is proven, it will most likely be necessary to test this new paradigm in between rounds of traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy.


Metabolic Manipulation: A New Cancer Treatment Paradigm


Mebendazole:  tubulin disrupting agent  induces apoptosis via Bcl-2 inactivation in chemoresistant melanoma cells.  Healthy melanocytes were unaffected.

Aspirin: inhibits the activation of a transcription factor that leads to cancer cell growth and inflammatory response (via cytokines IL-1 and IL-6).

Cimetidine: prevents histamine binding and indirectly enhances local anti-tumor response via IL-18 signaling to the immune system's natural killer and T cells.

Dichloracetate (DCA): DCA inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK), an inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase, a key enzyme in glucose metabolism. DCA blocks anerobic glucose metabolism in cancer cells from glycolysis inducing apoptosis. [orphan drug used to treat lactic acidosis].

DCA in doses over 25 mg/kg can cause demyelination and peripheral neuropathy by oxidative stress. However, taking adequate antioxidants like ellagic acid can prevent this side effect.

Ellagic acid is an antioxidant found in blackberries, cranberries, pecans, pomegranates, raspberries, strawberries, walnuts, wolfberry and grapes.  Ellagic acid prevents the demyelination side-effect from DCA allowing patients to take higher effective doses.

Metformin: suppresses the AMPK/mTOR/S6K1 axis and several protein kinases. Metformin may also specifically target the cancer-initiating stem cells, thereby preventing cancer relapse when used in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy (dandelion root hypothesis). [Beware Cimetidine and Metformin are secreted by the same cation pump in renal tubules]

Low Fructose Diet: Pancreatic cancers use the sugar fructose to activate a key cellular pathway that drives cell division

Black Cumin Seed: Nigella sativa oil containing thymoquinone has been demonstrated to reduce the growth and size of tumors in rats.

Co-Enzyme Q10:
 (Ubiquinone) lipid soluble antioxidant that stimulates the immune system leading to higher antibody levels, greater numbers and/or activities of macrophages and T cells and increased resistance to infection.

MitoQ: Ubiquinone-based antioxidant that concentrates in mitochondria.

Vitamin C and NAC: both human lymphoma or human liver cancer cells which produce high levels of free radicals were suppressed with these antioxidants in a DNA damage independent mechanism. Researchers believe that the antioxidants destabilizing a tumor's ability to grow under oxygen-starved conditions.  NAC, taurine, and epsom salt boost intracellular glutathione levels.

Desferrioxamine: iron chelator that binds iron and limits a key limiting metabolite needed for tumor growth. High iron levels also inhibit the immune system.  Desferrioxamine is also a powerful antioxidant and stimulates p53 activity. A combination of p53 stimulation and BCL-2 inhibition (mebendazole) would likely induce normal apoptosis in cancer cells.

Tuesday, March 24, 2015

Inflammation and Sulfate



Historically, people were injured or died from 1. child birth (mom or baby), 2. trauma (farm accidents, war, duels) and 3. various infectious diseases. Perinatal mortality is much improved, and People still come to the ED for trauma and infection but with modern sanitation, antibiotics, medical and surgical practices; people usually are surviving these events.

However, despite these advanced, in the last 100 years we have seen an explosion of chronic inflammatory illnesses from lupus to crohns disease, asthma, and even hypertension, diabetes, and heart disease.  Some argue that these inflammatory disorders were always there but we are seeing more of them today because people are living longer today and we are recognizing them better.

It is apparent that the current lifespan upper limit is 120 years.  However, Man rarely reaches that upper limit because of environmental factors damaging our organs and not because our organ systems are defectively designed.  According to the Bible, Man used to live up to 1000 years and ancient peoples organs also lasted this long with no mention of organ transplant.  So why are we now wearing out early?  As I see it, apart from telomerase activity and other acquired genetic corruptions, either God messed up designing us, or we are depriving and/or poisoning ourselves in some way.  It is my faith that God did not design us to wear out before our time. 

Also, many people lived to old age even during the Middle Ages.  Much of the reason for the supposed shorter life span is because the reported value averages all the babies that died at birth with everyone else.  If you survived birth, you were likely to live a long time just like today.

All these modern chronic inflammatory diseases have something in common. They all are associated with elevated homocysteine levels.  Accordingly, homocysyeine is considered a nonspecific marker of inflammation.  But, thats just it.  Homocysteine is not nonspecific. Homocysteine is a very specific biochemical intermediate in the sulfur and DNA repair pathway.  Could it be that elevated homocysteine is pointing us directly to what the problem is-- Sulfate deficiency?

Turns out that sulfate (SO4^2-) is used all over in the body for many things. It is one of the most important negative ions (anions) in the body after chloride (Cl-) and bicarbonate (CO3^2-).  Sulfate is used to make other more complex molecules more soluble.  The liver conjugates toxins and drugs with sulfate so they can be excreated by the kidney.  Similarly, many important complex molecules in the body are sulfated to increase their solubility.

You might have heard of the good cholesterol that is in egg yokes is also found in our brain.  Or you might have taken glucosamine and condroitin for your joints.  An important natural blood thinner is heparin.  However, in reality its not just cholesterol heparin or glucosamine; but cholesterol sulfate, glucosamine sulfate, condroitin sulfate, and heparin sulfate.  Without sulfate, the body cannot produce or utilize these important biomolecules.  No sulfate means no heparin sulfate which leads to blood clots like heart attcks, stroke and pulmonary embolism. 

You might also have also heard of gutathione.  Glutathione (GSH) is the master antioxidant for each cell. Glutathione protects the cell from oxidative damage. When dietitians tell us to eat a diet of fresh fruits and veggies rich in antioxidants, those antioxidant keep glutathione in its protective state.  Glutathione is chock full of sulfur amino acids.  You could consume all the antioxidants possible, but without sulfate you wouldn't produce the glutathione for the other antioxidants to keep active.

Humans get sulfate in two ways.  First, we can directly consume inorganic sulfate.  The body easily absorbs sulfate and distributes it throughout the body.  Second, if there is not enough inorganic sulfate in the diet, the body can convert sulfur-containing amino acids in protein like methionine and cysteine into sulfate. In fact, despite the importants of sulfate to our health, the FDA makes absolutely no recommendations for our daily sulfate requirement. Sadly, the government considers sulfate to be a acid rain-causing pollutant and has gone to great lengths to scrub it out of our coal and gasoline.

The FDA assumes that we can just get all the sulfate we need by converting sulfur amino acids into sulfate. The problem with this is that converting methionine and cysteine to sulfate is very expensive and requires B12, B6, and folate to do the transformation.

What I'm saying is that that all these modern chronic inflammatory diseases may be helped by getting more inorganic sulfate in the diet.  How do you do this? Epsom salt is magnesium sulfate and easily found at every corner pharmacy and grocery store in the western world.  In addition, in contrast to the hundreds and even thousands of dollars of prescription medicine that many consume on a monthly basis to control but never cure these diseases, epsom salt is less than 1$.

We have romantic stories of the fountain of youth and healing in volcanic springs.  FDR even stayed at Warm Springs, GA recuperating from Polio. However, it just may be that it wasn't soaking in these sulfated waters that was healing but drinking them.

Now if you think that this theory about epsom salt and sulfate is too good to be true, consider 1. magnesium sulfate is already used very effectively to treat several acute exacerbations of chronic inflammatory conditions like asthma, migraine and preeclampsia. 2. epsom salt is already safely taken as a home remedy by numerous very healthy 85-year-olds in the southern US.  This population who regularly consume epsom salt have much less disease than do their children. 3. Methyltrexate is a powerful chemotherapy drug that blocks folate metabolism that is also used to treat many of these inflammatory diseases.  By looking at the biochemical pathway above showing folate and homocysteine, I hope you can see that taking extra sulfate is a much easier way to boost sulfate than by blocking folate-dependent DNA repair pathways.

Why does being folate-deficiency cause inflammation?  The body will do what it needs to do to survive.  When the body is cold it will shunt bood away from the limbs to the core to preserve core body heat resulting in frostbite and loss of limbs before loss of life.  The body is a Master at "stealing from Peter to pay Paul".  

When the body is sulfate deficent, it will become catabolic and start to cannibalize sulfate from various tissues.  My hunch is that while the body is cannibalizing sulfate, there is a risk of the body developing an exaggerated immune response against a particular tissue. There may be genetic factors that predispose someone to which tissue this might be or it might be random chance.  An autoimmune response to the skin is eczema or psoriasis. A reaction in the lungs might be asthma or maybe sarcoidosis.  Once your body has been autoimmune-sensitized to a particular tissue type, because of immune memory, you may likely carry the risk of future exacerbations.  However, understanding the possible mechanism of disease, it may be possible to make simple alterations in diet to prevent future exacerbations.

Sodium Benzoate is a ubiquitous food preservative found in soda pop, imitation maple syrup, BBQ sauce, soy sauce, salad dressings, and even store-bought humus.  Sodium benzoate is a D-aminoacid oxidase inhibitor and blocks the conversion of homocysyeine to sulfate.  This dangerous food preservative should be avoided.

Tylenol is a common pain reliever and fever reducer.  Tylenol is cleared from the body by being sulfated in the liver befire being excreted by the kidney.  However, Tylenol causes a second hit to body sulfate levels. The liver converts acetaminophen to a toxic radical metabolite known as NAPQI which depletes liver glutathione.  The NAPQI-glutathione depletion is what results in liver failure and death in tylenol overdose.  Studies have shown that children exposed to tylenol have a 500% increased assiciation of asthma.  Now association does not prove causation but I personally limit my tylenol exposure and  prefer ibuprofen for minor pain and fever.  

In addition to a possible causal relationship between sulfate deficiency and inflammatory illness is a link between insulin resistant diabetes and dementia and sulfate deficiency. One of the common places the body goes to steal sulfate is skeletal muscle. Low sulfate means low cholesterol sulfate which results in a sparsity of lipid rafts in muscle cell walls.  Lack of lipid rafts in muscle cell walls results in low Glut4 receptor insertion which causes the insulin resistance. So far I have 3 individuals who are petsonal friends with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes who started taking epsom salt and their blood sugars went from the 200-300 range immediately to the 120-150 range.  This is anecdotal, but research needs to start somewhere.

Dementia and sulfate follows a different but related mechanism.  We know that persons with defective Apo4e enzymes have a genetic predisposition to developing Alzheimer's dementia. Apo4e is involved with transporting fat and cholesterol to and from the brain.  What happens in the brain is sulfate deficiency may cause the Endoplasmic Reticulum in the bain to become deficient in cholesteol sulfate and become too rigid or too floppy (conflicting data).  Beta-amyloid precursor protein is then cleaved out of the ER in the wrong spot and instead of being targeted for the lysosome to be degrated, the beta-amyloid precursor protein deposits in the brain to form the characteristic plaques. I believe the whole dementia disease process is not only caused by the B-amyloid buildup but by general dysfunction of the ER as a whole whose job is to fold, finish and activate proteins via post-translational modifications in the cell. This is why Alzheimers usually mainly affects more recent memory.  New connections are not being made because the enzymatic machinery isn't working.  Taking extra oral inorganic sulfate in the form of epsom salt may regulate cholesterol sulfate in the brain ER and improve memory and maybe even halt or reverse the disease process before a certain point.

I also think there is potential benefit to taurine and sulfate supplementiation in pre-term and low weight birth. Pre-mature infants have impared liver and taurine production and are likely also globally sulfate deficient. Taurine and sulfate supplementation has already been studied and shown some positive effects.     

In the metabolic pathway above, methionine is needed in the creation of SAM or S-adenasylmethionine. SAM is a key methyl donor critical in the formation of neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephine, epinephrine and serotonin.  Could it be that the root cause behind the explosion of mental illness, depression and anxiety could also be traced back to sulfate deficiency?  Instead of taking SSRI's or other expensive medications that alter seretonin and norepinephrine, could these disorders be treated by avoiding sulfate-modulating preservatives and sulfate supplementation?

Cancer is a disease that requires the accumulation of multiple DNA mutations. The body has a very sophisticated DNA repair mechanism to prevent mutation. Homocysteine and Methionine are also key intermediates in the folate cycle. And Folate is a critical component of DNA repair.  I don't think that it is such a big leap to assume that sulfate deficiency could also adversely affect DNA repair and be a contributing factor to the development of some cancers.  So, in addition to mental illness, inflammatory disease, there may also be a link between sulfate deficiency and cancer. 

Gestational hypertension, diabetes, preclampsia and ecclampsia are all associated with elevated homocysyeine levels.  Infact there exists a direct correlation with homocysyeine level and the severity of disease. When a women is pregnant, the developing fetus will steal the nutrients it needs from the mother.  I think all these severe gestational diseases are directly a result of sulfate deficiency.  Gestational hypertension is treated with methyldopa which is known to modulate the SAM pathway. Preeclampsia and eclampsia are already treated aggressively with IV mag sulfate.  All this time doctors assumed it was the Mg alone relaxing smooth muscle.  Maybe it is also the sulfate treating the root cause of the disease.

My recommendation for any adult with inflammatory illnesses, type 2 diabetes, dementia or a strong family history of these issues is to:

1. Avoid Sodium Benzoate preservative
2. Limit Tylenol exposure
3. Eat Healthy preservative-free diet
4. Exercise and get at least 20 min sun daily
5.  Take 1/4 tsp Epsom Salt Heptahydrate crystals in 8 oz liquid daily or twice-a-day.

For severe debilitating illness like multiple sclerosis, scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, etc:
 
6. Take 5000 Units D3 Daily
7. Take B12, B6, Folate vitamin daily 

Magnesium Sulfate is not necessarily a cure all. Once you have developed an autoimmune reaction against a particular tissue, your immune system has a long memory, and you will carry the risk of future exacerbations the rest of your life.  But the goal of sulfate supplementation is to manage future exacerbation. Once a person has developed hypertension, kidney failure or some other chronic disease, sulfate supplementation alone won't get rid of the scar tissue in the liver and lungs and it won't restore lost neurons and nephrons in the kidney.  But what it may do is prevent further injury, loss of reserves, and organ failure.

Tuesday, February 17, 2015

Nephite Archaeology and Anthropology


I have started a pintrest board on Nephite archaeology and anthropology.  I think there are strong parallels between the Hopewell/Woodland culture and the Nephites of the Book of Mormon.  You can view my board on Book of Mormon Archaeology here:

https://www.pinterest.com/brosnahan0946

Tuesday, February 10, 2015

Nuclear War Preperation

I do believe the fear over radiation is over-hyped.  I just was an old radiation nuclear engineer in the ED a couple months ago and he was being treated for basil cell skin cancers but he worked at Savannah River and worked directly with fuel cell rods with minimal shielding.

However.  There is a point at which gamma radiation will cook you and wipe out your bone marrow at over 2-5 Severts. But it is probably not true that any amount of radiation is harmful.  It depends on how much and what type.  Gamma mostly goes through you.  Alpha and Beta doesnt penetrate but is harmful if inhaled or ingested.

So when it comes to nuclear war.  The best protection is to live 10 miles from a nuclear target to avoid overpressure, gamma and thermal effects and after-affects of the detonation.  Most people in Nagasaki and Hiroshima died of thermal burns. Intetesting that Wearing white underclothes and natural fibers was sonewhat protective to thermal effects of the bomb outside a certain distance from the explosion. (between exposion and thermal radius of bomb). 

When it comes to fallout.  Beta and Alpha-particle radiation exposure is a problem if inhaled and ingested. The LDS Church doctrine of food and water storage will provide prepared members clean uncontaminated basic nutrition during the fallout period.  Fallout emiting Alpha particles is very toxic if ingested.  Alpha particles are a Helium nucleus missing 2 electrons.  These particles will strip electrons off anything and damage any tissue they contact.  Beta particles can sunburn the skin

Recommendations:
1. Live 10 miles from nuclear target to avoid blast, thermal and gamma radiation effects of nuclear detonation.
2. Water and Food Storage
3. Wheat is excellent to store because of its balanced nutrition (starch, protein, fat) and because government and lawless elements won't want it.
4. Geiger counter to check contamination of food and water.
5. Painting respirator to filter air if having to leave home to replenish sypply of clean water.
6. Oral Potassium Iodine or topical Providone iodine solution to protect thyroid.
7. Plastic or PVC rain suit with googles to protect from beta exposure if having to leave home to replenish sypply of clean water. 
8. Roll plastic and duct tape to seal home and create a decon area at a back door. (although I would not plan on venturing outdoors for at least 2 weeks)
9. Radioprotectants increase immunity to radiation exposure: powdered milk and protein powder, epsom salt, meletonin and desferoxamine.
10. As soon as it is safe to emerge, gather at the LDS Stake Center with survivors and pool resources and talents. LDS groups provide protection because of 1. agreed upon leadership structure 2. gospel standards keep undesirables away.